Some exert their toxicity quickly while others act over a long period to time . Examples of respiratory toxins are asbestos, formaldehyde, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and silica. Toxins can damage cells of the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system . The standard toxicology test for corrosivity uses white rabbits with the material applied to the shaved skin. Experience has shown that results obtained with white rabbits are highly predictive of potential skin effects in humans.
Respiratory toxicity can occur in the upper respiratory system or in the lower respiratory system . The primary types of respiratory toxicity are pulmonary irritation, asthma/bronchitis, reactive airway disease, emphysema, allergic alveolitis, fibrotic lung disease, pneumoconiosis, and lung cancer.
Corrosion determined using other species and procedures must also be considered in the decision as to classification as a corrosive. While these criteria are based on laboratory animals that are quite different than humans, the relative response between animals and humans is generally comparable on a per body weight basis. Thus, expressing the effect in terms of kilogram of body weight provides a satisfactory basis for determining potential human effects based on animal research results.
Adverse effects resulting from repeated doses or exposures to a substance over a relatively prolonged period of time. The name given to a chemical in the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry or the Chemical Abstracts Service or a name which will clearly identify the chemical for hazard evaluation purposes.
They can act directly on cells of the embryo causing why do i have no energy cell death or cell damage that leads to abnormal organ development. A chemical might also induce a mutation in a parent’s germ cell that is transmitted to the fertilized ovum. Examples of reproductive toxins are lead and 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane . Reproductive toxicity can involve toxicant damage to either the male or female reproductive system.
Those substances that can cause birth defects are referred to as teratogens. The HCS definition for agents which damage the lung is « chemicals which irritate or damage pulmonary tissue. » These are commonly known as respiratory toxins.
- Biohazards affect workers in many industries; influenza, for example, affects a broad population of workers.
- Biological hazards include infectious microorganisms such as viruses and toxins produced by those organisms such as anthrax.
- Health care workers, including veterinary health workers, risk exposure to blood-borne pathogens and various infectious diseases, especially those that are emerging.
- Various health and safety warning campaigns have sought to reduce workplace hazards, such as this one about ladder safety.
- OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment.
- The goal of an occupational safety and health program is to foster a safe and healthy work environment.
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The primary function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. Thus, damage to the respiratory tissues interferes with blood/gas exchange that may cause serious malfunction of all tissues of the body, especially the brain and heart.
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A number assigned to a specific chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service, an organization operated by the American Chemical Society. CAS Numbers are used internationally to identify specific chemicals or mixtures. An abnormal immunologic response in a person who has become hypersensitive to a specific substance. Some forms of dermatitis and asthma may be caused by allergic reactions to chemicals.
Translating a 50 mg/kg LD50 to an understandable situation in humans, if a group of 150-pound humans ingested about one-half teaspoon of such a chemical, approximately 50% would be expected to die. Cancers are usually named for the specific cell type or organ of origination. For example, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is a cancer that arose from a squamous cell in the lung. A hepatocellular carcinoma is a cancer arising from a liver cell .